## Optical thin films

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### Structured light;

physical and geometrical properties

**Principal investigator**: Miguel A. Alonso

**Keywords**: structured light, propagation-invariant beams, birefringence, geometric phase, nonparaxial light, spin-orbit interaction, Mie scattering.

This work involves the study of optical fields whose spatial and/or temporal structure in amplitude, phase and/or polarization is tailored to present a specific set of properties. One such class of fields are the “propagation-invariant beams”, whose intensity profile is preserved under propagation up to a rigid transformation. These beams have been used in applications such as imaging with enhanced depth of focus, light-sheet microscopy, optical trapping, and nanofabrication. However, they are also interesting from a geometrical/mathematical point of view, and they often provide interesting analogies with phenomena in other areas of physics. In particular, the use of the ray model reveals otherwise hidden geometric constraints that rule the spatial structure of these beams.

Other areas of study include: paraxial and nonparaxial fields with interesting polarization distributions, as well as birefringent optical elements that can be used to generate these fields; the theoretical description of such birefringence elements and the concept of geometric phase; the interaction of polarization with intensity and orbital angular momentum for nonparaxial fields (spin-orbit interaction); nonparaxial closed-form solutions to Maxwell’s equations and their use to study the interaction of focused fields with spherical scatterers.

#### Publications

##### 2021

*Polarization singularities and Möbius strips in sound and water-surface waves*

K.Y. Bliokh, M.A. Alonso, D. Sugic, M. Perrin, F. Nori, and E. Brasselet

**Phys. Fluids**33, 077122 (2021)

*Optical polarization skyrmionic fields in free space*

R. Gutiérrez-Cuevas and E. Pisanty

**J. Opt**23, 024004 (2021)

*Analytic treatment of nonparaxial full-Poincaré fields: singularity structure and trapping properties*

R. Gutiérrez-Cuevas and M.A. Alonso

**J. Opt.**23, 024005 (2021)

##### 2020

*Platonic Gauss beams: wave and ray treatment*

R. Gutiérrez-Cuevas and M.A. Alonso

**Opt. Lett.**45, 6759-5762 (2020)

*Modal Majorana sphere and hidden symmetries of structured Gaussian beams*

R. Gutiérrez-Cuevas, S.A. Wadood, A.N. Vamivakas and M.A. Alonso

**Phys. Rev. Lett.**125, 123093 (2020)

*Shaping caustics into propagation-invariant light*

A. Zannotti, C. Denz, M.A. Alonso and M.R. Dennis

**Nature Commun.**11, 3597 (2020)

##### 2019

*Geometric phases in 2D and 3D polarized fields: geometrical, dynamical, and topological aspects*

K.Y. Bliokh, M.A. Alonso and M.R. Dennis

**Rep. Prog. Phys.**82, 122401 (2019)

*Study of reflectors for illumination via conformal maps*

L.A. Alemán-Castañeda and M.A. Alonso

**Opt. Lett.**44, 3809-3812 (2019)

*Generalized Gaussian beams in terms of Jones vectors*

R. Gutiérrez-Cuevas, M.R. Dennis, and M.A. Alonso

**J. Opt.**21, 084001 (2019)

*Classical entanglement underpins the invariant propagation of space-time wave packets*

H.E. Kondakci, G.K. Atia, M.A. Alonso, and A.F. Abouraddy

**Opt. Lett.**44, 2645-2648 (2019)

*What is the maximum differential group delay achievable by a space-time wave packet in free space?*

M. Yessenov, L. Mach, B. Bhaduri, D. Mardani, H.E. Kondakci, G.K. Atia, M.A. Alonso, and A.F. Abouraddy

**Opt. Express**27, 12443-12457 (2019)

*Modal Majorana sphere and hidden symmetries of structured-Gaussian beams*

R. Gutiérrez-Cuevas and M.A. Alonso

**arXiv:1901.06987v1**(2019)

*Gaussian mode families for systems of rays*

M.R. Dennis and M.A. Alonso

**J. Phys. Photonics**1, 025003 (2019)

##### 2018

*Poincaré sphere representation for spatially varying birefringence*

A. Vella and M.A. Alonso

**Opt. Lett.**43, 379-382 (2018)

*Lorenz-Mie scattering of focused light via complex focus fields: An analytic treatment*

R. Gutiérrez-Cuevas, N.J. Moore, and M.A. Alonso

**Phys. Rev. A**97, 053848 (2018)

*Measuring geometric phase without interferometry*

T. Malhotra, R. Gutiérrez-Cuevas, J. Hassett, N. Vamivakas, and M.A. Alonso

**Phys. Rev. Lett.**120, 233602 (2018)

*Birefringent distributions tailored for imaging and other applications*

M.A. Alonso and A. Vella

**17th Workshop on Information Optics (WIO), IEEE**1-3 (2018)

##### 2017

*Swings and roundabouts: Optical Poincaré spheres for polarization and Gaussian beams*

M.R. Dennis and M.A. Alonso

**Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A**375, 20150441 (2017).

*Birefringent masks that are optimal for generating bottle fields*

A. Vella, H. Dourdent, L. Novotny, and M.A. Alonso

**Opt. Express**25, 9318-9332 (2017). Erratum, 25, 19654 (2017).

*Ray-optical Poincaré sphere for structured Gaussian beams*

M.A. Alonso and M.R. Dennis

**Optica**4, 476-486 (2017).

*The ultrasound needle pulse*

K.J. Parker, S. Chen and M.A. Alonso

**IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control**64, 1045-1049 (2017).

*Polynomials of Gaussians and vortex-Gaussian beams as complete, transversely confined bases*

R. Gutiérrez-Cuevas and M.A. Alonso

**Opt. Lett.**42, 2205-2208 (2017).

*Scalar and electromagnetic nonparaxial bases composed as superpositions of simple vortex fields with complex foci*

R. Gutiérrez-Cuevas and M.A. Alonso

Opt. Express 25, 14856-14870 (2017).

*Theory and applications of free-electron vortex states*

J. Verbeeck, K.Y. Bliokh, I.P. Ivanov, L. Clark, R. Van Boxem, A. Béché, R. Juchtmans, G. Guzzinati, M.A. Alonso, P. Schattschneider, F. Nori

**Phys. Rep.**690, 1-70 (2017).

*Complete confined bases for beam propagation in Cartesian coordinates*

R. Gutiérrez-Cuevas and M.A. Alonso

**J. Opt. Soc. Am. A**34, 1697-1702 (2017).

2016

*Mie scattering of highly focused, scalar fields: an analytic approach*

N.J. Moore and M.A. Alonso

**J. Opt. Soc. Am. A**33, 1236-1243 (2016).

*The longitudinal iso-phase condition and needle pulses*

K.J. Parker and M.A. Alonso

**Opt. Express**24, 28669-28677 (2016).

2014

*Generation of nonparaxial accelerating fields through mirrors. I: two dimensions*

M.A. Alonso and M.A. Bandres

**Opt. Express**22, 7124-7132 (2014)

*Generation of nonparaxial accelerating fields through mirrors. II: three dimensions*

M.A. Alonso and M.A. Bandres

**Opt. Express**22, 14738-14749 (2014).

2013

*Three-dimensional accelerating waves*

M.A. Bandres, M.A. Alonso, Ido Kaminer and Mordechai Segev

**Opt. Express**21, 13917-13929 (2013).

*Ray transfer matrix for a spiral phase plate*

M. Eggleston, T. Godat, E. Munro, M.A. Alonso, H. Shi, M. Bhattacharya

**J. Opt. Soc. Am. A**30, 2526-2530 (2013).

*Analytical techniques for the study of focused beams*

M.A. Alonso

**Complex Light and Optical Forces VII conference, Photonics West, SPIE proceeding**8637, 863716 (2013).

*Spin-orbit interactions (SOI) of light*

K.Y. Bliokh, A. Aiello and M.A. Alonso

**The Angular Momentum of Light, (Cambridge University Press, 2013)**, eds. D. Andrews and M. Babiker, pp. 174-245.

*Basis expansions for monochromatic field propagation*

M.A. Alonso and N.J. Moore

**Mathematical Optics: Classical, Quantum, and Imaging Methods**(CRC Press, 2013), eds. V. Lakshminarayanan, M.L. Calvo, and T. Alieva, pp. 97-141.

2012

*Orthonormal basis for nonparaxial focused fields in two dimensions, and its application to modeling scattering and optical manipulation of objects*

K. Lombardo and M.A. Alonso

**Am. J. Phys.**80, 82-93 (2012).

*Coherence vortices in Mie scattered partially coherent fields*

M. Marasinghe, M. Premaratne, D. Paganin, and M.A. Alonso

**Opt. Express**20, 2858-2875 (2012).

A.M. Beckley, T.G. Brown, and M.A. Alonso

**Opt. Express**20, 9357-9362 (2012).

2011

*The effect of orbital angular momentum and helicity in the uncertainty-type relations between focal spot size and angular spread*

M.A. Alonso

**J. Opt.**13, 064016 (2011).

*Optimal pulses for arbitrary dispersive media*

M.A. Alonso, T. Setälä, and A.T. Friberg

**J. Eur. Opt. Soc. R.P.**6, 11035 (2011).

*Spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in focusing, scattering, and imaging systems*

K.Y. Bliokh, E.A. Ostrovskaya, M.A. Alonso, O.G. Rodríguez-Herrera, D. Lara, and C. Dainty

**Opt. Express**19, 26132-26149 (2011).

*Paraxial and nonparaxial polynomial beams and the analytic approach to propagation*

M.R. Dennis, J.B. Götte, R.P. King, M.A. Morgan and M.A. Alonso

**Opt. Lett.**36, 4452-4454 (2011).

*Angular momentum of light revisited: Spin-orbit interactions in free space*

K.Y. Bliokh, M.A. Alonso, and E.A. Ostrovskaya

**Complex Light and Optical Forces V, SPIE Proceedings**7950, 1-8 (2011).

*Full Poincaré beams*

M.A. Alonso, A.M. Beckley, and T.G. Brown

**22nd Congress of the International Commission for Optics: Light for the Development of the World, SPIE Proceedings**8011, 80111M (2011).

*Mie scattering for high numerical aperture fields*

N.J. Moore and M.A. Alonso

**22nd Congress of the International Commission for Optics: Light for the Development of the World, SPIE Proceedings**8011, 801162 (2011).

*Angular momenta and spin-orbit interaction for nonparaxial beams*

M.A. Alonso and K.Y. Bliokh

**22nd Congress of the International Commission for Optics: Light for the Development of the World, SPIE Proceedings**8011, 80116H (2011).

2010

*Two methods for modeling the propagation of the coherence and polarization properties of nonparaxial fields*

J.C. Petruccelli, N.J. Moore, and M.A. Alonso

**Opt. Commun.**283, 4457-4466 (2010).

*Airy Beams: A geometric optics perspective*

S. Vo, K. Fuerschbach, K.P. Thompson, M.A. Alonso, and J.P. Rolland

**J. Opt. Soc. Am. A**27, 2574-2582 (2010).

*Full Poincaré beams*

A.M. Beckley, T.G. Brown, and M.A. Alonso

**Opt. Express**18, 10777-10785 (2010).

*Angular momenta and spin-orbit interaction for nonparaxial light in free space*

K.Y. Bliokh, M.A. Alonso, E.A. Ostrovskaya, and A. Aiello

**Phys. Rev. A**82, 036825 (2010).

*Methods for modeling nonparaxial fields*

J.C. Petruccelli, N.J. Moore, and M.A. Alonso

**Proceedings of the 9th Euro-American Workshop on Information Optics, IEEE proceeding**10.1109/WIO.2010.5582523 (2010).