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Microstereolithography and related microfabrication processes

In the past (DCPR Nancy, 1997-2003), I studied microfabrication processes based on three-dimensional light-induced polymerisation chemical reactions. Most of the results concerned a microstereolithography apparatus for the manufacture of ceramic microcomponents with complex shapes. But image upconversion from the visible to the UV domain using nonlinear optics was also developed to allow dynamic liquid-crystal-based masks to be employed in a process working in the UV range. At last, "nanofabrication" of phase plates with the use of evanescent fields has been demonstrated.

Combining three-dimensional fluidic reservoirs and optical tweezers to control beads/living cells contacts

I am developing a complete system based on holographic optical tweezers to realise multiple-point interactions between beads and cells with control of the stimulation places, timing, and durations. In addition, I also introduce microstereolithography as a 3D micro-manufacturing approach to the rapid prototyping of three-dimensional fluidic microchambers of complex shapes inside the sample, comprising wells, channels and walls to inject beads locally and keep them separated from cells in our assays. Several shapes of reservoirs designed to keep beads and cells separated in liquid samples have been realized and successfully tested. This allows us to deposit beads locally on the microscope cover glass placed under the reservoir outlet. Limited extension of beads under the outlet has been confirmed, and the ability of the polymeric structures to confine beads in a restricted area has been demonstrated. Examples of manipulations consisting at first in extracting several beads from the reservoir, making them travel to the target cell, and finally depositing on its outer membrane, have also been demonstrated.

Quantitative phase imaging of living cells

This is a new project with the french company PHASICS (Palaiseau). We would like to use their high resolution wave front sensor to make quantitative phase images of living cells. PHASICS SID4 product line uses a technology based on a modified Hartmann test to measure wavefront distortions. Using the multi-wave lateral shearing interferometry formalism to analyse the recorded Hartmanngrams leads to increased resolution (at least by a factor 4) compared to all other gradient recovery based wave front sensors (Hartmann test, Shack-Hartmann).

Structured illumination on nanopatterned substrates

The aim of the present project is to develop a simple optical imaging system with sub-100 nm resolution particularly useful for the analysis of living cells. Some optical techniques allowing sub-diffraction imaging have been described. However, they always involve sophisticated equipments and are not readily available. Our optical system rests on two main ideas. The first one is to replace the glass slide of classical microscopes by a sub-wavelength grating substrate. This grating converts the incident beam into evanescent waves with high spatial frequencies that are able to probe the finest features of the sample. The second idea is to control the amplitude and phase of the plane waves forming the incident beam. Depending on the illumination mode, one can shine the sample with a sub-wavelength light grid or scan it continuously with a ~100 nm light spot. This system should allow super-resolved wide-field imaging and, in combination with Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy reading, should permit the study of dynamic processes at nanometre scales. Our first application will be to investigate phenomena occurring on the plasma membrane of live cells.

Selected recent publications

Highly flexible whole-field sectioning microscope with liquid-crystal light modulator
S. Monneret, M. Rauzi, P.-F. Lenne
J. Opt.
A: Pure Appl. Opt 8, 6 pages (2006).

Practical lab tool for living cells based on microstereolithography and multiple dynamic holographic optical tweezers
S. Monneret, F. Belloni, D. Marguet
Proceedings of the SPIE, vol 6088 (invited paper) (2006).

Complex three-dimensional fluidic reservoirs to control beads/living cells contacts
S. Monneret, F. Belloni, O. Soppera
Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 3(6), 645-652 (2007). pdf

Quadrant Kinoforms: an approach to multi-plane dynamic three-dimensional holographic trapping
F. Belloni, S. Monneret
Applied Optics 46 (21), 4587-4593 (2007).pdf

Multiple holographic optical tweezers parallel calibration with optical potential well characterization
F. Belloni, S. Monneret, F. Monduc, M. Scordia
Optics Express 16 (12), 9011-9020 (2008).pdf

Complete list of publications

S. Monneret, "La microstéréolithographie et ses applications", Mécanique & Industrie 6, 457-462 (2005).

S. Monneret, "Microfabrication directe de pièces céramiques tridimensionnelles de formes complexes", Techniques de l'Ingénieur (2004)

C. Provin, S. Monneret, H. Le Gall, S. Corbel, "Three-dimensional ceramic microcomponents made using microstereolithography", Advanced Materials 15 (12), 994-997 (2003).

S. Monneret, H. Le Gall, V. Badé, F. Devaux, A. Mosset, E. Lantz, "Dynamic UV microstereolithography", European Physical Journal AP 20, 213-218 (2002).

S. Monneret, C. Provin, H. Le Gall, S. Corbel, "Microfabrication of freedom and articulated alumina-based components", Microsystem Technologies 8, 368-374 (2002).

C. Provin, S. Monneret, "Complex ceramic-polymer composite microparts made by microstereolithography", IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing 25 (1), 59-63 (2002).

C. Provin, S. Monneret, H. Le Gall, S. Corbel, "Mise en forme de micro-objets composites polymère/céramique créés par microstéréolithographie", Entropie 235/236, 90-95, (2001).

S. Corbel, S. Monneret, H. Le Gall, "Manufacturing by photolithography or photomasking", Trends in Photochemistry & Photobiology 7, 177-190, (2001).

F. Devaux, A. Mosset, E. Lantz, S. Monneret, H. Le Gall, "Upconversion of images from the visible to the UV domain. Application to dynamic UV microstereolithography", Applied Optics 40, 4953-4957, (2001).

V. Loubère, S. Monneret, H. Le Gall, S. Corbel, "Microstereolithography using a dynamic mask for microactuators fabrication", Rapid Production Development, Revue Internationale de CFAO et d'Informatique Graphique 15, 229-243, (2000).

S. Monneret, P. Huguet-Chantôme, F. Flory, "m-lines technique : prism coupling measurement and discussion of accuracy for homogeneous waveguides", J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 188-195, (2000).

V. Loubère, S. Monneret, S. Corbel, "Microstéréolithographie utilisant un écran générateur de masques", Revue Internationale de CFAO et d'Informatique Graphique 13, 31-43, (1998)

H. Rigneault, S. Monneret, C.I. Westbrook, "Resonant focusing in a planar microcavity", J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2712-2715, (1998)

H. Rigneault, S. Monneret, " Field quantization and spontaneous emission in lossless dielectric multilayer structures ", Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9, 1017-1040, (1997)

A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, B. Colombeau, M. Vampouille, P. J. Devilder, C. Froehly, S. Monneret, " Adjustable phase-locking of two Nd:glass ring laser beams ", Optics Communications 141, 123-126, (1997)

H. Rigneault, S. Monneret, " Modal analysis of spontaneous emission in a planar microcavity ", Physical Review A 54, 2356-2368, (1996)

.S. Monneret, S. Tisserand, F. Flory, H. Rigneault, " Light-induced refractive index modifications in dielectric thin films : experimental determination of relaxation time and amplitude ", Applied Optics 35, 5013-5020, (1996)

H. Rigneault, F. Flory, S. Monneret, S. Robert, L. Roux, " Fluorescence of Ta2O5 thin films doped by kilo-electron-volt Er implantation : application to microcavities ", Applied Optics 35, 5005-5012, (1996)

F. Flory, H. Rigneault, J. Massaneda, S. Monneret, " Optical waveguide characterization of thin films ", Review of Laser Engineering 24, 94-102, (1996)

H. Rigneault, F. Flory, S. Monneret, " Nonlinear totally reflecting prism coupler : thermomechanic effects and intensity-dependent refractive index of thin films ", Applied Optics 34, 4358-4369, (1995)